When the Panic of struck in the following year, the United States suffered one of its worst economic crises.
Writings of Emma Goldman: Essays on Anarchism, Feminism, Socialism, and Communism
Goldman began speaking to crowds of frustrated men and women in New York City. On August 21, she spoke to a crowd of nearly 3, people in Union Square , where she encouraged unemployed workers to take immediate action. Her exact words are unclear: undercover agents insist she ordered the crowd to "take everything If they do not give you work, demand bread. If they deny you both, take bread. A week later, Goldman was arrested in Philadelphia and returned to New York City for trial, charged with "inciting to riot". She responded by throwing a glass of ice water in his face.
She spent two hours talking to Goldman and wrote a positive article about the woman she described as a "modern Joan of Arc. Despite this positive publicity, the jury was persuaded by Jacobs' testimony and frightened by Goldman's politics. The assistant District Attorney questioned Goldman about her anarchism, as well as her atheism; the judge spoke of her as "a dangerous woman". Once inside she suffered an attack of rheumatism and was sent to the infirmary; there she befriended a visiting doctor and began studying medicine.
She soon became swamped with requests for interviews and lectures.
Anarchism, Anarchist Communism, and The State: Three Essays
To make money, Goldman decided to pursue the medical work she had studied in prison. However, her preferred fields of specialization— midwifery and massage —were not available to nursing students in the US. She sailed to Europe, lecturing in London, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. In Vienna , she received two diplomas for midwifery and put them immediately to use back in the US.
Alternating between lectures and midwifery, Goldman conducted the first cross-country tour by an anarchist speaker. They went together to France and helped organize the International Anarchist Congress on the outskirts of Paris. They shared a residence there with friends of Goldman. McKinley was hit in the breastbone and stomach, and died eight days later. During interrogation he claimed to be an anarchist and said he had been inspired to act after attending a speech by Goldman.
The authorities used this as a pretext to charge Goldman with planning McKinley's assassination. They tracked her to a residence in Chicago she shared with Hippolyte Havel, who had come to the US; as well as with Mary and Abe Isaak , an anarchist couple and their family. Earlier, Czolgosz had tried but failed to become friends with Goldman and her companions. During a talk in Cleveland, Czolgosz had approached Goldman and asked her advice on which books he should read.
In July , he had appeared at the Isaak house, asking a series of unusual questions. They assumed he was an infiltrator, like a number of police agents sent to spy on radical groups. They had remained distant from him, and Abe Isaak sent a notice to associates warning of "another spy". Although Czolgosz repeatedly denied Goldman's involvement, the police held her in close custody, subjecting her to what she called the " third degree ".
No evidence was found linking Goldman to the attack, and she was released after two weeks of detention. Before McKinley died, Goldman offered to provide nursing care, referring to him as "merely a human being". Throughout her detention and after her release, Goldman steadfastly refused to condemn Czolgosz's actions, standing virtually alone in doing so.
drunmulbine.ga Friends and supporters—including Berkman—urged her to quit his cause. But Goldman defended Czolgosz as a "supersensitive being"  and chastised other anarchists for abandoning him. McKinley's successor, Theodore Roosevelt , declared his intent to crack down "not only against anarchists, but against all active and passive sympathizers with anarchists". After Czolgosz was executed, Goldman withdrew from the world. Scorned by her fellow anarchists, vilified by the press, and separated from her love, Berkman, she retreated into anonymity and nursing. Using the name E. Smith, she left public life and took on a series of private nursing jobs.
A coalition of people and organizations across the left end of the political spectrum opposed the law on grounds that it violated freedom of speech , and she had the nation's ear once again. After an English anarchist named John Turner was arrested under the Anarchist Exclusion Act and threatened with deportation, Goldman joined forces with the Free Speech League to champion his cause.
Although Turner and the League lost, Goldman considered it a victory of propaganda. In , Goldman decided to start a publication, "a place of expression for the young idealists in arts and letters". In addition to publishing original works by its editors and anarchists around the world, Mother Earth reprinted selections from a variety of writers. Goldman wrote frequently about anarchism, politics, labor issues, atheism, sexuality, and feminism, and was the first editor of the magazine.
On May 18 of the same year, Alexander Berkman was released from prison. Carrying a bouquet of roses, Goldman met him on the train platform and found herself "seized by terror and pity"  as she beheld his gaunt, pale form. Neither was able to speak; they returned to her home in silence. For weeks, he struggled to readjust to life on the outside. An abortive speaking tour ended in failure, and in Cleveland he purchased a revolver with the intent of killing himself.
Invigorated anew by this violation of freedom of assembly , he declared, "My resurrection has come! Berkman took the helm of Mother Earth in , while Goldman toured the country to raise funds to keep it operating. Editing the magazine was a revitalizing experience for Berkman. But his relationship with Goldman faltered, and he had an affair with a year-old anarchist named Becky Edelsohn.
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Goldman was pained by his rejection of her, but considered it a consequence of his prison experience. Anarchists and syndicalists from around the world gathered to sort out the tension between the two ideologies, but no decisive agreement was reached. Goldman returned to the US and continued speaking to large audiences. For the next ten years, Goldman traveled around the country nonstop, delivering lectures and agitating for anarchism.
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The coalitions formed in opposition to the Anarchist Exclusion Act had given her an appreciation for reaching out to those of other political positions. When the US Justice Department sent spies to observe, they reported the meetings as "packed". In the spring of , Goldman met and fell in love with Ben Reitman , the so-called "Hobo doctor.
As a doctor, he treated people suffering from poverty and illness, particularly venereal diseases. He and Goldman began an affair. They shared a commitment to free love and Reitman took a variety of lovers, but Goldman did not. She tried to reconcile her feelings of jealousy with a belief in freedom of the heart, but found it difficult. Two years later, Goldman began feeling frustrated with lecture audiences.
She yearned to "reach the few who really want to learn, rather than the many who come to be amused". Covering a wide variety of topics, Goldman tried to represent "the mental and soul struggles of twenty-one years". When Margaret Sanger , an advocate of access to contraception , coined the term "birth control" and disseminated information about various methods in the June issue of her magazine The Woman Rebel, she received aggressive support from Goldman.
The latter had already been active in efforts to increase birth control access for several years. In , Goldman was arrested for giving lessons in public on how to use contraceptives. Although they later split from Sanger over charges of insufficient support, Goldman and Reitman distributed copies of Sanger's pamphlet Family Limitation along with a similar essay of Reitman's. In Goldman conducted a nationwide speaking tour, in part to raise awareness about contraception options. Although the nation's attitude toward the topic seemed to be liberalizing, Goldman was arrested on February 11, , as she was about to give another public lecture.
Although US President Woodrow Wilson was re-elected in under the slogan "He kept us out of the war", at the start of his second term, he announced that Germany 's continued deployment of unrestricted submarine warfare was sufficient cause for the US to enter the Great War.
2. Anarchism in Political Philosophy
Shortly afterward, Congress passed the Selective Service Act of , which required all males aged 21—30 to register for military conscription. Goldman saw the decision as an exercise in militarist aggression, driven by capitalism. She declared in Mother Earth her intent to resist conscription, and to oppose US involvement in the war. To this end, she and Berkman organized the No Conscription League of New York, which proclaimed: "We oppose conscription because we are internationalists, antimilitarists, and opposed to all wars waged by capitalistic governments.
When police began raiding the group's public events to find young men who had not registered for the draft, however, Goldman and others focused their efforts on distributing pamphlets and other writings. The Socialist Party of America took an official stance against US involvement, but supported Wilson in most of his activities.
On June 15, , Goldman and Berkman were arrested during a raid of their offices, in which authorities seized "a wagon load of anarchist records and propaganda".